Indian Rice Pudding (Kheer)

Quick post today. I’m moving to a new place this weekend! It’s a newer apartment in a really nice location downtown, and I’m very excited. I’m going from living with 5 roommates in a very humble abode to living with 1 in a much nicer place, so it will definitely be a change (mostly good, I think). It has big windows and lots of light, so get excited for prettier pictures… maybe.


I also have my graduation banquet tonight, so it’s going to be a very busy weekend around here, between that and packing and visiting with my mom, sisters, and niece who will be here for the weekend. I’m excited though (did I already say that?!)


Rice pudding is one of my favourite comfort foods. I have to refrain from buying those little packaged ones at the grocery store because I would seriously eat 3 a day. This is an easy, quick, and way more delicious alternative to those. I looove the flavour of cardamom, and it goes perfectly in this dish. Deb from Smitten Kitchen recommended adding the bay leaf, and I trust that woman’s opinion, so that is what I did. I’ve also heard that arborio rice works very well in rice puddings, but I had some basmati that I needed to use up. I’m going to try it next time, so I’ll let you all know how that goes.


Indian Rice Pudding (Kheer):

Adapted from Allrecipes

Makes 4 Servings

4 cups Milk (I used Vanilla Almond Milk)

1/2 cup Basmati Rice

1 Cinnamon Stick

1 tsp Ground Cardamom

1 Bay Leaf

3 tbsp White Sugar

1/2 tsp Vanilla Extract

Optional – 1/4 cup Pistachios or Almonds, toasted & chopped

Optional – 1/4 cup Raisins 

1. Bring the milk and sugar to a gentle boil in a large saucepan. Add the basmati rice, reduce the heat to medium-low, and cook until the mixture thickens and the rice is very tender, anywhere from 30 minutes to an hour (depending on the consistency that you like).

2. Stir in the cardamom and vanilla, and raisins if using. Remove cinnamon stick and bay leaf, then ladle into serving bowls and top with toasted almonds or pistachios. I recommend serving it warm, but you could also chill it in the refrigerator if you prefer it cold.


Chicken Pot Pie for Perfectionists

I initially made this way back in November for a group of friends. I didn’t plan on sharing it here because I didn’t have time to take pictures, and also because I thought the recipe was a little long and complex. Luckily, this recipe actually makes two pies. One to eat now, one for the freezer. So five months later (I wanted to eat it sooner, but kept saving it for some occasion, and then I really wanted chicken pot pie and figured that was occasion enough) I popped this baby into the oven. And I realized that I couldn’t not share the recipe.


It took me forever to remember where I got the recipe from in the first place. I checked all of my go-to websites and didn’t think they were quite right and was kind of stumped. And then I remembered that even though this is 2014, physical cookbooks exist. In this case, Dinner Chez Moi by Laura Calder exists. And I don’t know how on earth I forgot about it. This book is full of elegant (but easy) recipes that will inspire you to throw a dinner party, and remind you that it doesn’t have to be complicated. From Clam Chowder to Banana Cake with Coffee Icing to Beet and Orange Salad with Arugula and Pistachios, there are dozens of recipes that are right up my alley. It’s safe to say I need to bring this one out more often.


I wouldn’t usually call myself a perfectionist, but in the kitchen my standards get very high – not necessarily for all food, but for the food that I cook. I am definitely, as they say, my own worst critic. And this pot pie holds true to its title. It leaves the harshest critic with literally nothing to complain about. I can’t think of one thing that could possibly make it more delicious. I could use every adjective that I know to describe how perfect this pot pie is, but I couldn’t do it justice. You must make this. I do not go around making claims like this for no reason, people.


The only problem with a food this delicious is that it means that you will forever be comparing others to it. I honestly don’t think I will ever be satisfied with another pot pie again. I made my own pie crust, which I definitely recommend, but I kind of cheated and used a pre-roasted chicken instead of roasting my own, and I think I may have skipped a step with the stock… It’s funny, because I think if I was making this now I would probably just take the extra steps. I’ve come a long way in 6 months! Try not to be daunted by the ingredient list. It’s not supposed to be a quick dish. Take a Sunday afternoon in the kitchen for this one. You can substitute different things if you need to, but remember, this pie is supposed to be for perfectionists 😉


Chicken Pot Pie for Perfectionists:

Makes 2 Pies 

Adapted from Dinner Chez Moi by Laura Calder 

For the Chicken: 

1 whole Chicken

Salt & Pepper

1 – 2 tbsp Butter, softened

For the Enriched Stock: 

1 large Carrot, halved

1 medium Onion, unpeeled and quartered

1 Celery rib, roughly chopped

1 Bay Leaf

a few sprigs Parsley

6 Peppercorns

1 tsp Tomato Paste

1 tsp Soy Sauce

3 cups Chicken Stock

For the Crust:

3 cups All Purpose Flour

1 cup Cold Lard, cut into pieces

1 tsp Salt

1/2 cup Ice-cold Water

For the Garnish:

3 Carrots, sliced

2 Celery ribs, chopped

16 Pearl Onions, unpeeled

1 tbsp Olive Oil

6 slices Bacon, cut into small strips

2 cloves Garlic, minced

2 cups Frozen or Briefly Blanched Peas

2 large handfuls Chopped Fresh Parsley

For the Sauce: 

3/4 cup White Wine

3/4 cup Butter

1/2 cup Heavy Cream or Creme Fraiche

Salt & Pepper

1/2 tsp Paprika, more to taste

To Finish:

Egg Wash

Sea Salt

1. For the chicken, heat the oven to 375. Set the chicken in a roasting pan, season with salt and pepper, rub with butter, and roast until the juices run clear, basting occasionally, about 1 hour and 15 minutes. Remove from oven. When cool enough to handle, discard the skin. Remove most of the meat from the bird; set aside. Put the carcass and neck into a stock pot. Add the remaining stock ingredients. Bring to a boil, reduce the heat, and simmer, uncovered, for 1 and 1/2 hours. Strain and reserve 2 1/2 cups stock for the recipe (cool and freeze any remaining stock for future use). Remove any chicken clinging to the bones and add to the reserved meat. Chop all the meat into bite-sized pieces. You should have about 5 cups of chicken pieces.

2. While the chicken roasts, make and chill the lard pastry. Put the flour, lard, and salt in a food processor and pulse to crumbs. Add the water, and pulse until the dough just comes together. Remove, pat into a disk, wrap in plastic, and chill until you’re ready to roll it out.

3. Prepare the garnish. Bring a large pot of water to a boil. Salt it, then blanch the carrots and celery until al dente, about 5 minutes. Remove with a slotted spoon, drain, and rinse in ice-cold water to stop the cooking. Drain thoroughly in same water, then blanch the pearl onions for 5 minutes. Remove with a slotted spoon, drain, and peel.

4. Heat the oil in a frying pan and sauté the bacon until cooked but not crisp, about 2 minutes. Remove with a slotted spoon to a large bowl, leaving the fat in the pan. Add the onions to the pan and cook over medium-high heat, stirring occasionally, until lightly browned, about 10 minutes. Add the carrots and celery and cook 5 minutes, adding the garlic for the last minute. Add to the bacon, and then add the peas, parsley, and reserved chicken meat. Season with salt and pepper.

5. For the sauce, pour the reserved chicken stock into a saucepan, add the wine, and bring to a simmer. In a separate saucepan, melt the butter over medium-high heat. When the foam subsides, whisk in the flour and cook, whisking, for 1 minute. Gradually whisk in the warm stock and cook until thick, 1 minute. Remove from heat and stir in 1/2 cup of cream. Season well with salt and pepper, and stir in the paprika. Pour the sauce over the chicken and vegetables and mix gently to combine thoroughly.

6. To assemble the pies, spoon the pilling into two 9-inch pie plates. Divide the pastry into 2 disks, roll out rounds, and lay over the filling, pressing to seal the edges. Cover and refrigerate until ready to bake.

7. Heat the oven to 450. Brush the tops of the pies with egg wash and sprinkle with sea salt. Cut 2 or 3 slits in the tops to allow steam to escape. Bake for 25 minutes, reduce heat to 350, then continue baking until the crust is deeply golden and crisp, about 30 minutes longer. When it’s ready, slice and enjoy. Finally.

Soft & Chewy Triple Peanut Butter Cookies


Want to know something sad? I’m not seeing any family this Easter! I usually head home for the weekend, but I was just there for five days, and my mom and step dad are off to Banff for some weird reason. How selfish of them, right? (Just kidding. It’s my step dads birthday. They deserve it.) It feels weird not having a big Easter dinner or brunch, and not watching my nieces and nephews hunt for chocolate eggs (and inevitably convincing them to let their Auntie Nessa share). I did do some egg dye-ing last week with the Boys and Girls Club though, so I’m not totally out of the Holiday spirit.


Want to know something not sad at all? These amazingly decadent Peanut Butter Cookies. I mean, who doesn’t love Peanut Butter Cookies? I refused to eat peanut butter until 2 years ago, but I certainly didn’t have a problem with it in cookie form.


This recipe takes the basic crunchy, flat peanut butter cookies you thought you loved and takes them to a whole new level. Like their name states, they are incredibly soft and chewy. They also have chocolate in them, and I happen to think the addition of honey roasted peanuts is kinda genius. I’m hooked.


Soft & Chewy Triple Peanut Butter Cookies:

Makes 2 – 3 Dozen, depending on size

Adapted from Sallys Baking Addiction

1/2 cup Salted Butter, softened to room temperature

1/2 cup Light Brown Sugar

1/4 cup Granulated Sugar

1 Large Egg

3/4 cup Creamy Peanut Butter (I used natural)

1 tsp Vanilla Extract

1/2 tsp Baking Soda

1 1/4 cups All Purpose Flour

1/2 cup Honey Roasted Peanuts

3/4 cup Mini Peanut Butter Cups, chopped*

1. In a large bowl, cream the butter and sugars. Mix in the peanut butter, egg, and vanilla (in that order). Slowly mix in the baking soda and flour. Do not overmix. Fold in the peanuts and peanut butter cups. Chill dough in the fridge for at least 30 minutes.

2. Remove dough from the refrigerator. Preheat oven to 350 degrees. Drop chilled dough by tablespoonfuls onto ungreased cookie sheet. Gently press down to slightly flatten. Bake for 8-9 minutes. Cookies will be soft and may appear undone. They will firm up as they cool.

3. Allow to cool completely on a wire rack. Enjoy! Cookies stay fresh stored covered at room temperature for up to 7 days, or are awesome in the freezer for up to a month.

Sexy Carrot Ginger Salad Rolls

You’ve have probably noticed by now that although I love to cook and am decently good at it, I rarely create my own recipes. I adapt things to no end in order to suit my own tastes, but the original ideas are technically not mine. This is partially because I am admittedly not the most creative person on the planet, but also because there are so many others sharing such beautiful, inspiring recipes that I don’t feel the need to be. I hope that you recognize that my intention is never to take credit for these recipes, but rather to share the love and deliciousness (and also keep a record of all of the foods that I make).


Anyway, on a less serious/less boring note… Can Sarah Britton be my own personal chef? Ugh. I adore her recipes. They are always so creative, full of interesting flavours, and healthy, unique ingredients. Also, she calls these Sexy Spring Rolls (because of the healthy ingredients!) so sexy they will stay. I’m not gonna question it.


I’m just starting to get into asian cooking, and these salad rolls seemed like a good place to start. They were a first for me, and I think I have a bit of a love/hate relationship. I am not a fan of julienning vegetables. It takes forever, is repetitive, and it hurts my hands (I know, poor me). I’ll take kneading dough or stirring endlessly over a stove any day. I did, however, like making the actual rolls. Rice paper is the coolest thing!


This almond butter sauce is genius and I think I could eat it by the spoonful. It matches perfectly with the ginger-sesame flavour of the carrots and sweet potatoes. I really liked my rolls with cucumbers, avocado, and cilantro, but bell peppers, mint, basil, mango, sprouts, or cabbage would be good additions/substitutions as well. Salad rolls are traditionally eaten as an appetizer, but I like eating them for lunch or even a light dinner. This recipe was a huge success and I can’t wait to make salad rolls again!


Sexy Carrot Ginger Salad Rolls

Makes 10 – 12 Salad Rolls 

Adapted from My New Roots

2 Medium Carrots

1 small Sweet Potato

1/4 cup Sesame Seeds

splash of Cooking Oil

2 tbsp Fresh Ginger, minced

1 tbsp Agave Nectar

squeeze of Lemon Juice

1. Toast sesame seeds over medium heat in a dry skillet until lightly golden.

2. Julienne the carrots and sweet potato (cut them into matchstick-like pieces). You could also do this with the cucumber now if using.

3. Add the oil, ginger, and agave to a skillet over medium heat. Add the carrots and sweet potatoes and stir fry for 4 or 5 minutes. You don’t want the vegetables to cook, just take the raw edge off, if that makes sense.

4. Remove from heat and toss with the toasted sesame seeds and lemon juice.

5. Prepare your other ingredients (I used cucumber, cilantro, and avocado).

6. Fill a shallow dish a little larger than the rice paper and fill it with warm water. Following the directions on the package, place one wrap in the water until it becomes softer and more pliable, then transfer to a clean surface. Place the carrot-ginger mixture and other ingredients into the centre of the wrap and top with a drizzle of almond butter sauce. Fold the top half of the wrap over the ingredients, then both sides, and then the bottom to seal. Sarah has a great tutorial on her site if you need it!

Almond Butter Sauce:

1/3 cup Almond Butter

1 clove Garlic

2 tsp Tamari or Soy Sauce

1 tbsp Agave Nectar

2 tbsp Water

juice of 1 Lime (approx. 3 tbsp)

pinch of Red Pepper Flakes

1. Whisk all ingredients together in a small bowl, adding water as needed to thin to desired consistency.


Coconut Quinoa Pancakes

Today I am finally sharing one of my very favourite recipes with you! I’ve been making these guys at least once a month for over a year now, and will be continuing to do so for the foreseeable future. I pretty much always have some leftover quinoa in the fridge because it’s convenient and so darn healthy. This is the best way that I know of to use it up!


These are a bit more dense than your average pancake, but I swear you can’t taste the quinoa in them. My version is loaded with coconut in all of it’s forms (I may have an addiction…) so if you don’t like coconut you might need to make some substitutions. I’ve learned that this recipe is verrry versatile though, so don’t worry!


This take is significantly more nutritious than your average pancake, which I did to make myself not feel so terrible for eating them so often (pancakes are a bit of a soft spot for me). They also freeze very well, so you can pop them in the toaster/microwave for a quick weekday breakfast (or dinner. I am a huge fan of pancakes for dinner!)


Coconut Quinoa Pancakes

Adapted from Fitsugar 

Makes 8 – 10 small pancakes 

1 cup Cooked Quinoa

3/4 cup Whole Wheat Flour

2 tsp Baking Powder

1/2 tsp Sea Salt (course)

1 tbsp Ground Flax Seeds

1 tbsp Chia Seeds

1/4 Unsweetened Shredded Coconut

1 tbsp Coconut Oil, melted & cooled, plus more for pan

1 Egg + 1 Egg White

1/2 cup Coconut Flavoured Almond Milk

2 tbsp Maple Syrup, plus more for serving

1. In a medium bowl, whisk together cooked quinoa, whole wheat flour, baking powder, salt, flax and chia seeds, and shredded coconut. In a separate medium bowl, combine egg, egg white, milk, melted & cooled coconut oil, and maple syrup. Add wet mixture to the dry ingredients and stir to combine. Do not over mix.

2. Add coconut oil to a large skillet or griddle and melt over medium heat, spreading it to coat the surface. Once hot, drop the batter onto the surface using either a 1/4 cup or a 1/3 cup measure depending on how big you want the pancakes. Cook until bubbles appear on top, about 2 or 3 minutes.

3. Flip cakes and cook until golden brown on underside, about 2 more minutes. Repeat process with remaining batter, adding more coconut oil to the pan as needed. Serve with maple syrup, fresh fruit, or jam/jelly (my fave!)

Pear & Hazelnut Muffins


My sister had a baby a few weeks ago, and I brought these to the hospital the night that she went into labour. I just happened to have made them that day, which worked out perfectly. It was kind of nice to have a little snack for us as we walked around the hospital, and to give to visitors when they came to see the baby the next day. She is perfect, by the way. So teeny with the hugest eyes.


One of the benefits of having a million siblings (okay, 9) is that there are always lots of babies around. This is my fifth time being an auntie, and I love it so much. My family is pretty close and we have a lot of dinners together, even though we don’t all live in the same city (or even country). It’s so fun to have babies around to cuddle (and no, being around babies at work everyday isn’t quite enough!)

IMG_3582I think you could definitely eat these muffins for breakfast – we certainly did! They are mostly whole wheat, plus they contain oatmeal (breakfast food!), fruit, and nuts. You can’t argue with that.


I really liked the idea of saving some of the chopped nuts to put on top before baking. I love that little bit of crunch, and its much better for you than those sugar-y, butter-y, oatmeal topping.


Pear & Hazelnut Muffins:

Adapted from Smitten Kitchen 

Makes 16 Muffins

2 firm Pears, peeled, halved, cored & grated

6 tbsp Unsalted Butter, melted, browned, & cooled

1 cup Buttermilk*

2/3 cup Coconut Palm Sugar

2 large Eggs

1 1/2 tsp Vanilla

3/4 cup Rolled Oats

1 cup Whole Wheat Flour

1/2 cup White Flour

2 tsp Baking Powder

3/4 tsp Baking Soda

1/2 tsp Cardamom

1/2 tsp Nutmeg

1/2 tsp Salt

1 cup Toasted Hazelnuts, blanched, & coarsely chopped**

1. Heat oven to 425 degrees. Butter a 12 cup muffin tin or line it with papers***

2. Melt butter in a saucepan over medium heat, whisking frequently. Once melted, the butter will foam up a bit, then subside. Watch as it slowly turns brown (keep whisking!). Remove heat once it is browned and has a nutty aroma.

3. Peel pears, then halve, core, and grate them. You should have about 1 cup of grated pears (maybe a little more). Stir in melted butter, sugar, buttermilk, eggs and vanilla until combined.

4. In a separate bowl, stir together the oats, flours, baking powder, baking soda, spices, and salt, and all but about 1/3 cup of chopped hazelnuts. Gently fold dry ingredients into batter until just combined, do not over mix.

5. Fill muffin cups almost to the top and sprinkle with the reserved 1/3 cup hazelnuts. Place muffins in oven and immediately reduce temperature to 375. Bake for 20 – 25 minutes, until the tops are golden brown and a toothpick inserted comes out batter-free.

6. Cool muffins in pan for 10 minutes, then transfer to a cooling rack. Muffins keep for 2 – 3 weeks in an airtight container at room temperature, and they also freeze well.

*If you don’t have buttermilk, use 1 cup of regular milk. Remove 1 tbsp from the cup and then add 1 tbsp lemon juice or white vinegar. Allow to sit for 5 minutes.

** If you did not buy toasted hazelnuts, roast them in the oven for 10 – 20 minutes until lightly browned.

*** I cannot live without these parchment paper muffins cups. They are the best and peel off so easily. Dreamy.

Maple-Dijon Roasted Winter Vegetables


So I know it’s not really winter anymore. Actually, it was a balmy 15 degrees out today. But it’s still super pretty chilly at night, and spring produce is only just starting to appear at the grocery stores, and it’s still pretty pricey. Also, aren’t these carrots so beautiful? Which is why roasting winter vegetables is still very reasonable.


I brought these as leftovers to work the day after I made them. I offered one to somebody, and that one person turned into four more. It was like a pack of gum! Everyone was all “omg these are delish” and of course wanted the recipe. Luckily, it could not be easier! Thanks, Gwyneth.


I actually cut the recipe in half and used different vegetable ratios, but I thought I would post the original recipe. Just know that it’s very open to adaptation! As I mentioned in the last post, I paired these with Terrific Turkey Burgers. They were the perfect combination.


Maple Dijon Roasted Winter Vegetables:

Adapted from Goop 

Makes enough for 4, as a side

1 Sweet Potato, peeled

4 Parsnips, peeled & ends trimmed

4 Carrots, peeled & ends trimmed

2 tbsp Maple Syrup

2 tbsp Dijon Mustard

2 tbsp Olive Oil

Sea Salt & Freshly Ground Pepper

1. Preheat the oven to 425 degrees. Prepare pans with parchment paper or aluminum foil.

2. Cut the sweet potato, parsnips, and carrots into roughly 3″ long by 1/2″ thick (like french fries).

3. Mix together maple syrup, dijon mustard, and olive oil and toss with the vegetables.

4. Spread vegetables onto a pan and then sprinkle with salt and pepper. Roast, stirring occasionally, until browned and a soft enough to cut with a parring knife, about 25 minutes.

Terrific Turkey Burgers

I have no idea why, but I have been craving turkey burgers. No, not a delicious, big, juicy beef burger – but turkey. Is that weird? As I’m sure you’ve noticed, I don’t eat a ton of meat. This is partially taste preference, but it is mostly because I don’t have a whole lot of experience with cooking meat (also, meat is expensive and I’m feeling poor lately). I’m one of those people who has to cut into everything to make sure it is actually cooked, but usually end up overcooking it because I’m afraid of undercooking it. I know, silly. Told ya I was inexperienced. I should probably buy a food thermometer.


While I would never mistake these for a beef burger, you gotta give them credit. Most turkey burgers end up being dry, chewy, and flavourless. These are different. I added in every ingredient I could think of (not kidding) to give them flavour and moisture. It worked. I enjoyed one of these for supper almost every day for a week (my life is super fun lately) and was actually totally satisfied and not even sick of them. And while they are obviously delicious with a bun and all the dressings, I mostly ate them plain (okay, I melted cheese all over them… shh).


Yes, I know I’m lame for calling these “terrific turkey burgers” and I don’t normally add on unnecessary adjectives, but honestly just “turkey burgers” sounded so boring so in this specific case I felt that it WAS necessary. Plus, they are pretty darn terrific. And you see those pretty carrots? They are the most perfect side dish, but they deserve their own post (trust me) so you’re going to have to hold out for them!


Terrific Turkey Burgers:

Makes 6 Burgers 

Adapted from Allrecipes

1 1/2 lb Ground Turkey

1/4 cup Seasoned Bread Crumbs

1/2 a Yellow Onion, finely diced

1/4 cup Parmesan Cheese, grated

1 clove Garlic, minced

1 Egg

1 tsp Dried Parsley

1 tbsp Dijon Mustard

1 tsp Worchestershire Sauce

1/2 tsp Soy Sauce

1 tsp Steak Seasoning

1. In a large bowl, mix all ingredients. Using your hands will probably work the best (I know, not my favourite thing either).

2. Form into 6 patties.

3. Cook the patties in a skillet over medium heat, flipping as necessary, for about 20 minutes. Serve hot!

Tzatziki Sauce


Tzatziki Sauce is probably my favourite part of Greek cuisine. Yes, I love the souvlaki and greek salad and spanokopita and all of the fresh fish (okay, maybe I have a bit of an American idea of what Greek food is…) but that sauce is magical. I’m known to sneak in more than a few samples of it from the adorable, old, Greek gentleman at my local farmers market. His tzatziki is the best I’ve tried, but this one comes pretty darn close (although, admittedly, I don’t think I’ve ever had one that I didn’t like).


I enjoyed this tzatziki as a dip for vegetables, with fresh tilapia and quinoa, and on crackers, but I’ve been wanting to make my own souvlaki for a while now and I know this would be ah-mazing on that as well. This will definitely be my go-to recipe until I trick my farmers market friend into giving me his (it’ll happen).


If you have never made your own tzatziki, you must, because it is so much easier than you think, especially now that Greek yogurt is found so easily (in Canada and the US, at least).

Tzatziki Sauce:

Adapted from Kalyn’s Kitchen

Makes a large bowl/container

650 mg Full Fat Greek Yogurt

1 Cucumber

1.5 tsp Kosher Salt

2 tbsp Fresh Dill

Juice from 1/2 a Lemon

1 clove Garlic, minced

1. Peel cucumbers, then cut in half lengthwise and take a small spoon and scrape out seeds. Discard seeds. (If you use the small seedless or European cucumbers with few seeds, you can skip this step.) Slice cucumbers, then put in a colander, sprinkle on 1 tsp salt, and let stand for 30 minutes to draw out water. Drain well and wipe dry with paper towel.

2. In food processor* with steel blade, add cucumbers, garlic, lemon juice, dill, and a few grinds of black pepper. Process until well blended, then stir this mixture into the yogurt. Taste before adding any extra salt, then salt if needed (I added about 1/2 a tsp).

3. Place in refrigerator for at least two hours before serving so flavours can blend. This should keep for up to 1 week in the refrigerator.

* If you do not have a food processor, you can always just grate the cucumber and mix ingredients separately. If you do this, I would suggest grating the cucumber halfway through step 1, instead of slicing the cucumbers. Then just let the grated cucumbers drain in the same way you would with the sliced (with the salt).